If you use the scripts provided, sslh will get its configuration from /etc/sslh.cfg. Please refer to example.cfg for an overview of all the settings.
A good scheme is to use the external name of the machine in
listen, and bind
localhost:443 (instead of all
binding to all interfaces): that way, HTTPS connections
coming from inside your network don’t need to go through
sslh is only there as a frontal for connections
coming from the internet.
Note that ‘external name’ in this context refers to the
actual IP address of the machine as seen from your network,
i.e. that that is not
127.0.0.1 in the output of
Sslh can optionally perform
libwrap checks for the sshd
service: because the connection to
sshd will be coming
sshd cannot determine the IP of the
OpenVPN clients connecting to OpenVPN running with
-port-share reportedly take more than one second between
the time the TCP connection is established and the time they
send the first data packet. This results in
default settings timing out and assuming an SSH connection.
To support OpenVPN connections reliably, it is necessary to
sslh’s timeout to 5 seconds.
Instead of using OpenVPN’s port sharing, it is more reliable
--openvpn option to get
sslh to do the
Using proxytunnel with sslh
If you are connecting through a proxy that checks that the
outgoing connection really is SSL and rejects SSH, you can
encapsulate all your traffic in SSL using
should work with
corkscrew as well). On the server side you
receive the traffic with
stunnel to decapsulate SSL, then
sslh to switch HTTP on one side and SSL on the
In that case, you end up with something like this:
ssh -> proxytunnel -e ----[ssh/ssl]---> stunnel ---[ssh]---> sslh --> sshd Web browser -------------[http/ssl]---> stunnel ---[http]--> sslh --> httpd
Configuration goes like this on the server side, using
stunnel -f -p mycert.pem -d thelonious:443 -l /usr/local/sbin/sslh -- \ sslh -i --http localhost:80 --ssh localhost:22
- stunnel options:
-pfor specifying the key and certificate
-dfor specifying which interface and port we’re listening to for incoming connexions
sslhin inetd mode.
- sslh options:
-ifor inetd mode
--httpto forward HTTP connexions to port 80, and SSH connexions to port 22.
On Linux (only?), you can compile sslh with
make use of POSIX capabilities; this will save the required
capabilities needed for transparent proxying for unprivileged
Alternatively, you may use filesystem capabilities instead
of starting sslh as root and asking it to drop privileges.
You will need
CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE for listening on port 443
CAP_NET_RAW for transparent proxying (see
You can use the
setcap(8) utility to give these capabilities
to the executable:
sudo setcap cap_net_bind_service,cap_net_raw+pe sslh-select
Then you can run sslh-select as an unpriviledged user, e.g.:
sslh-select -p myname:443 --ssh localhost:22 --tls localhost:443
Transparent proxy support
On Linux and FreeBSD you can use the
--transparent option to
request transparent proxying. This means services behind
sshd and so on) will see the external IP and ports
as if the external world connected directly to them. This
simplifies IP-based access control (or makes it possible at
You can refer to Sean Warn’ѕ tutorial for a
different set-up which enables transparent proxying between
two different machines. The following may only work if
sslh and the final servers are on the same machine.
Note that getting this to work is very tricky and
detail-dependant: depending on whether the target server and
sslh are on the same machine, different machines, or
different dockers, and tool versions, all seem to change the
required network configuration somewhat. If it doesn’t work,
it’s almost certain that the problem is not linked to
but to the network setup that surrounds it.
sslh needs extended rights to perform this: you’ll need to
CAP_NET_RAW capabilities (see appropriate chapter)
or run it as root (but don’t do that).
The firewalling tables also need to be adjusted as follows.
I don’t think it is possible to have
sslh both listen to 443 in
this scheme – let me know if you manage that:
# Set route_localnet = 1 on all interfaces so that ssl can use "localhost" as destination sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.route_localnet=1 sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.route_localnet=1 # DROP martian packets as they would have been if route_localnet was zero # Note: packets not leaving the server aren't affected by this, thus sslh will still work iptables -t raw -A PREROUTING ! -i lo -d 127.0.0.0/8 -j DROP iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING ! -o lo -s 127.0.0.0/8 -j DROP # Mark all connections made by ssl for special treatment (here sslh is run as user "sslh") iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -m owner --uid-owner sslh -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,ACK SYN -j CONNMARK --set-xmark 0x01/0x0f # Outgoing packets that should go to sslh instead have to be rerouted, so mark them accordingly (copying over the connection mark) iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT ! -o lo -p tcp -m connmark --mark 0x01/0x0f -j CONNMARK --restore-mark --mask 0x0f # Configure routing for those marked packets ip rule add fwmark 0x1 lookup 100 ip route add local 0.0.0.0/0 dev lo table 100
Tranparent proxying with IPv6 is similarly set up as follows:
# Set route_localnet = 1 on all interfaces so that ssl can use "localhost" as destination # Not sure if this is needed for ipv6 though sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.route_localnet=1 sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.route_localnet=1 # DROP martian packets as they would have been if route_localnet was zero # Note: packets not leaving the server aren't affected by this, thus sslh will still work ip6tables -t raw -A PREROUTING ! -i lo -d ::1/128 -j DROP ip6tables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING ! -o lo -s ::1/128 -j DROP # Mark all connections made by ssl for special treatment (here sslh is run as user "sslh") ip6tables -t nat -A OUTPUT -m owner --uid-owner sslh -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,ACK SYN -j CONNMARK --set-xmark 0x01/0x0f # Outgoing packets that should go to sslh instead have to be rerouted, so mark them accordingly (copying over the connection mark) ip6tables -t mangle -A OUTPUT ! -o lo -p tcp -m connmark --mark 0x01/0x0f -j CONNMARK --restore-mark --mask 0x0f # Configure routing for those marked packets ip -6 rule add fwmark 0x1 lookup 100 ip -6 route add local ::/0 dev lo table 100
To be able to use
localhost as destination in your sslh config along with transparent proxying
you have to allow routing of loopback addresses as done above.
This is something you usually should not do (see this stackoverflow post)
DROP iptables rules emulate the behaviour of
route_localnet set to off (with one small difference:
allowing the reroute-check to happen after the fwmark is set on packets destined for sslh).
See this diagram for a good visualisation
showing how packets will traverse the iptables chains.
You have to run
sslh as dedicated user (in this example the user is also named
sslh), to not mess up with your normal networking.
These rules will allow you to connect directly to ssh on port
22 (or to any other service behind sslh) as well as through sslh on port 443.
Also remember that iptables configuration and ip routes and
rules won’t be necessarily persisted after you reboot. Make
sure to save them properly. For example in CentOS7, you would
iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables, and add both
ip commands to your
Given you have no firewall defined yet, you can use the following configuration to have ipfw properly redirect traffic back to sslh
/etc/rc.conf firewall_enable="YES" firewall_type="open" firewall_logif="YES" firewall_coscripts="/etc/ipfw/sslh.rules"
#! /bin/sh # ssl ipfw add 20000 fwd 192.0.2.1,443 log tcp from 192.0.2.1 8443 to any out ipfw add 20010 fwd 2001:db8::1,443 log tcp from 2001:db8::1 8443 to any out # ssh ipfw add 20100 fwd 192.0.2.1,443 log tcp from 192.0.2.1 8022 to any out ipfw add 20110 fwd 2001:db8::1,443 log tcp from 2001:db8::1 8022 to any out # xmpp ipfw add 20200 fwd 192.0.2.1,443 log tcp from 192.0.2.1 5222 to any out ipfw add 20210 fwd 2001:db8::1,443 log tcp from 2001:db8::1 5222 to any out # openvpn (running on other internal system) ipfw add 20300 fwd 192.0.2.1,443 log tcp from 198.51.100.7 1194 to any out ipfw add 20310 fwd 2001:db8::1,443 log tcp from 2001:db8:1::7 1194 to any out
This will only work if
sslh does not use any loopback
localhost), you’ll need to use
explicit IP addresses (or names):
sslh --listen 192.168.0.1:443 --ssh 192.168.0.1:22 --tls 192.168.0.1:4443
This will not work:
sslh --listen 192.168.0.1:443 --ssh 127.0.0.1:22 --tls 127.0.0.1:4443
Transparent proxying means the target server sees the real
origin address, so it means if the client connects using
IPv6, the server must also support IPv6. It is easy to
support both IPv4 and IPv6 by configuring the server
accordingly, and setting
sslh to connect to a name that
resolves to both IPv4 and IPv6, e.g.:
sslh --transparent --listen <extaddr>:443 --ssh insideaddr:22 /etc/hosts: 192.168.0.1 insideaddr 201::::2 insideaddr
Upon incoming IPv6 connection,
sslh will first try to
connect to the IPv4 address (which will fail), then connect
to the IPv6 address.
Systemd Socket Activation
If compiled with
USESYSTEMD then it is possible to activate
the service on demand and avoid running any code as root.
In this mode any listen configuration options are ignored and the sockets are passed by systemd to the service.
Example socket unit:
[Unit] Before=sslh.service [Socket] ListenStream=22.214.171.124:443 ListenStream=126.96.36.199:444 ListenStream=188.8.131.52:445 FreeBind=true [Install] WantedBy=sockets.target
Example service unit:
[Unit] PartOf=sslh.socket [Service] ExecStart=/usr/sbin/sslh -v -f --ssh 127.0.0.1:22 --tls 127.0.0.1:443 KillMode=process CapabilityBoundingSet=CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE CAP_NET_RAW PrivateTmp=true PrivateDevices=true ProtectSystem=full ProtectHome=true User=sslh
With this setup only the socket needs to be enabled. The sslh service will be started on demand and does not need to run as root to bind the sockets as systemd has already bound and passed them over. If the sslh service is started on its own without the sockets being passed by systemd then it will look to use those defined on the command line or config file as usual. Any number of ListenStreams can be defined in the socket file and systemd will pass them all over to sslh to use as usual.
To avoid inconsistency between starting via socket and starting directly via the service Requires=sslh.socket can be added to the service unit to mandate the use of the socket configuration.
Rather than overwriting the entire socket file drop in values can be placed
In addition to the above with manual .socket file configuration there is an optional systemd generator which can be compiled - systemd-sslh-generator
This parses the /etc/sslh.cfg (or /etc/sslh/sslh.cfg file if that exists instead) configuration file and dynamically generates a socket file to use.
This will also merge with any sslh.socket.d drop in configuration but will be overriden by a /etc/systemd/system/sslh.socket file.
To use the generator place it in /usr/lib/systemd/system-generators and then call systemctl daemon-reload after any changes to /etc/sslh.cfg to generate the new dynamic socket unit.
If using transparent proxying, just use the standard ssh
rules. If you can’t or don’t want to use transparent
proxying, you can set
fail2ban rules to block repeated ssh
connections from an IP address (obviously this depends
on the site, there might be legitimate reasons you would get
many connections to ssh from the same IP address…)
See example files in scripts/fail2ban.
sslh can perform demultiplexing on UDP packets as well.
This only works with
sslh-select (it is not possible to
support UDP with a forking model). Specify a listening
address and target protocols with
will wait for incoming UDP packets, run the probes in the
usual fashion, and forward packets to the appropriate
sslh will then remember the association between
remote host to target server for 60 seconds by default,
which can be overriden with
udp_timeout. This allows to
process both single-datagram protocols such as DNS, and
connection-based protocols such as QUIC.